Frogs and Toads of Missouri

Differences between toads and frogs: Frogs and Toads are under the same order, Anura. True frogs belong to the family Ranidae, and true toads belong to the family Bufonidae. A true frog has smooth, moist skin and long legs for leaping. They lay eggs in clusters with young living in water. Adult frogs live in […]

Missouri Seeps and Springs

Missouri Springs Geology The majority of Missouri springs originate in the dolomitic rock mass that makes up the majority of the Ozarks (Vineyard et al, 1982). Dolomite, also referred to as dolostone, is a sedimentary rock with calcium magnesium carbonate (CaMg(CO3)2) as its primary constituent. Dolomite forms through the chemical alteration of limestone. As result, […]

Missouri’s Weather and Climate

Note: Safety tips will be underlined. First off, what is the difference between weather and climate? One can think of weather and climate in terms of time; weather constitutes the day-by-day (short term), while climate is a holistic look at a region's weather over the years (long term) (Vipul, 2009). It can also be thought […]

Turtles of Missouri

Introduction: Turtles and tortoises form the oldest living group of reptiles on earth; fossil evidence suggests that turtles were alive during the Triassic Period, which was over 200 million years ago. They have evolved little since this time and remain well-adapted for a variety of different environments; in fact, turtles can be found on every […]


A guide to a certain grayish-brown American mammal with a foxlike face, black mask, and ringed tail.


A guide to this medium-sized, moderately fast growing, aromatic tree with three distinctive leaf shapes.

Creek Chub

A guide to this small minnow, also called the common creek chub, found in the eastern United States and Canada.

Dark Eyed Junco

A guide to these small sparrows that flit about Western forest floors and flood the rest of North America in winter.