Links: Make links clear, convenient and reliable

Descriptive, relevant links are kind to your users. You've done the work to find the right page; all the user has to do is click and go.


Links are made up of the text visitors click (the link text) and a destination (the URL where they are taken). 

Links that are descriptive and useful build trust. Your readers should have a good sense of where a link will take them before they click it. 

When to use links:

  • To drive traffic to important pages on your website (but only when those pages are relevant to the topic at hand).
  • As a courtesy to your visitors. Link to pages (on your site or other credible sources) that expand upon a topic or reference. If linking to another website, link directly to the relevant page, rather than to the site’s homepage.
  • To avoid redundant pages. Rather than repeating the same information on multiple pages, use links to send visitors to a single source of truth.

Opening links in the same or a new tab/window

When setting a link, you may see an option to open it in a new tab or window. Select this option only if you are linking to a file (pdf, ppt, etc.), or when the link is interrupting a process (for example, when a user is filling out a form).

All other links should open in the same tab. Reasons for this include accessibility, the mobile experience, consistency and user expectations. You can read more about link targets on the UX Collective.

Writing effective link text

  • Be descriptive: Make the link text itself descriptive of the destination. Don’t create links that say “click here” or use a web address / URL as a link; these links decrease scannability and harm accessibility for visitors using screen readers.
  • Be concise: Links can span several words, but keep them to the most relevant words or phrase.
  • Try the skim test: A visitor should be able to skim the links on a page and understand what they link to without reading the context.
  • Avoid repeating the same link: When two links on a page go to the same destination, you create more work for your site’s visitors who have to figure out if and how the links are different. (Read more about avoiding duplicate links.)
  • Leave punctuation out of it: If a link has punctuation immediately before or after it, do not include the punctuation mark in the link — unless the link is a title surrounded by quotation marks.

Find more tips for writing effective link text on the Nielsen Norman Group website.

Types of links

Jump to tips and example of the following types of links:

Links to commercial websites should be approved by University Marketing and Communications, per the university’s domain policy.

Standalone links

Typically links appear as in-line text, but standalone links – which appear on a line of their own instead of within a paragraph – can be used to call attention to important links and actions. Standalone links may be used more generously than buttons, which should be used sparingly.

  • Start with a verb that invites visitors to do something.
  • End with a double chevron / guillemet (»). Do not substitute with two greater than symbols (>>). To create the symbol:
    • PC: Alt + 175
    • Mac: Shift + Option +
  • If three or more standalone links appear in a row, consider making the links bullet points and removing the chevrons (»).

Example standalone link:

Join our community of physicians and scientists, and we’ll encourage you to dream big – and support you in making those dreams a reality.

Explore degree programs »

Example of 3 or more links (bulleted list with no guillemets):

Learn more about student research:

Links to files/documents (pdf, xls, ppt, etc.)

Links to files can be in-text or standalone. (See the WashU Web Theme tutorial for linking to documents.)

  • Open link in a new window/tab.
  • Include the file type as part of the link in parentheses at the end.

Examples of links to files/documents:

Email addresses as links

An email address link automatically opens a draft addressed to that email – but only if the user’s computer/device has a default email application.

Make all email addresses on your site into links, and use the email address itself as the link text. This allows users to click on or copy the address, based on their preferences and settings, while also making the expected link behavior clear. (See the tutorial for adding links.)

  • Use the email address – rather than the person’s or office’s name – as link text
  • Link may be in-line (within a sentence) or standalone
  • If paired with other contact information, use soft returns to group into logical, scannable chunks (e.g., mailing address as one chunk, phone number and email as another)

Examples of email addresses as links:

URLs as link text

Like letting your underwear show: Do it on purpose, not by accident.

A URL / web address (e.g., should be included in web-based text only if promoting the URL itself is the goal of a marketing strategy. It is preferable to use descriptive words for link text, as described in Linking Basics.

If you have reason to use a URL as link text, the URL should be straightforward and concise, following these guidelines:

Examples of acceptable URL link text: