Evolution of heat transfer in pool boiling in contaminated water
Jacob Graham, Angelo Hawa, Patricia Weisensee
Proceedings of the ASME 2020 International Conference on Nanochannels, Microchannels, and Minichannels, ICNMM2020, July 12-15, 2020 (virtual conference)
Boiling heat transfer serves as an efficient mechanism to dissipate large amounts of thermal energy due to the latent heat of phase change. In academic studies, typically ultra-pure de-ionized (DI) water is used to avoid contamination. However, in industrial and commercial settings, the working fluid might be contaminated with sediments, dust, salts, or organic matter. Long-term boiling processes in non-DI water cause substantial build-up of a stable layer of deposit that dramatically reduces the heat transfer coefficient. Therefore, heating applications in a contaminated medium demand strategies to prevent such fouling. Here, we studied the use of lubricant infused surfaces (LIS) and their ability to possibly minimize the deposition of calcium sulfate. Aluminum samples were infused with Krytox 102 oil and the heat transfer coefficient was investigated at a vertical and horizontal surface orientation. Fouling effects were introduced by pool boiling for 7.5 hours in a 6.97 mM calcium sulfate solution at constant heat flux. Heat flux curves for both plain aluminum and LIS were calibrated before contamination. Initially, the LIS was unable to support a nucleate phase and transitioned directly from liquid convection to film boiling heat transfer. Upon partial degradation of the lubricant layer during long-run experiments, nucleate boiling ensued. Over 7.5 hours, the heat transfer coefficient of each sample (Al and LIS) degraded between 5.4% and 7.9% with no significant correlation with either lubricant treatment or surface orientation. Post boiling profilometry was conducted on each sample to characterize the thickness and distribution of the calcium sulfate layer. In these experiments, the plain aluminum surface outperformed the LIS at both orientations in minimizing calcium layer thickness. The LIS oriented vertically outperformed the LIS oriented horizontally.