Peer-Reviewed Articles


Karakoçak BB, Laradji A, Primeau T, Berezin MY, Li S, and Ravi N: Hyaluronan-Conjugated Carbon Quantum Dots for Bioimaging Use. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces. 2021 13(1):277–286. PMID: 33355448


Laradji A, Shui Y, Karakoçak BB, Evans L, Hamilton PD, Ravi N: Bioinspired Thermosensitive Hydrogel as a Vitreous Substitute: Synthesis, Properties, and Progress of Animal Studies. Materials. 2020 Mar 15; 13(6): 1337. PMID: 32183465


Karakoçak BB, Patel S, Ravi N, Biswas P: Investigating the Effects of Stove Emissions on Ocular and Cancer Cells. Nat. Sci. Rep. 2019 Feb 12; 9(1):1870. PMID: 30755694

Santhanam S, Shui Y, Struckhoff J, Karakoçak BB, Hamilton PD, Harocopos GJ, Ravi N: Bioinspired Fibrillary Hydrogel with Controlled Swelling Behavior: Applicability as an Artificial Vitreous. ACS Appl. Bio Mater. 2019 2(1):70-80. link


Karakoçak BB, Liang J, Kavadiya S, Berezin M, Biswas P, and Ravi N: Optimization of Red-Emitting Nitrogen-doped Carbon Dots for Use in Bioimaging. ACS Appl. Nano Mater. 2018 1(7):3682-3692. link

Karakoçak BB, Liang J, Biswas P, Ravi N: Hyaluronate coating enhances the delivery and biocompatibility of gold nanoparticles. Carbohydr. Polym. 2018 Apr 15; 186:243-251. PMID: 29455984


Liang J, Struckhoff JJ, Hamilton PD, Ravi N: Preparation and Characterization of Biomimetic β-Lens Crystallins Using Single-Chain Polymeric Nanoparticles. Langmuir. 2017 Aug 8; 33(31):7660-7668. PMID: 28658954

Liang J, Struckhoff JJ, Du H, Hamilton PD, Ravi N: Synthesis and characterization of in situ forming anionic hydrogel as vitreous substitutes. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. B. Appl. Biomater. 2017 Jul; 105(5):977-988. PMID: 26873608


Liang J, Karakoçak BB, Struckhoff JJ, Ravi N: Synthesis and Characterization of Injectable Sulfonate-Containing Hydrogels. Biomacromolecules. 2016 Dec 12; 17(12):4064-4074. PMID: 27936721

Karakoçak BB, Raliya R, Davis JT, Chavalmane S, Wang WN, Ravi N, Biswas P: Biocompatibility of gold nanoparticles in retinal pigment epithelial cell line. Toxicol. In Vitro. 2016 Dec; 37:61-69. PMID: 27599945

Santhanam S, Liang J, Struckhoff J, Hamilton PD, Ravi N: Biomimetic hydrogel with tunable mechanical properties for vitreous substitutes. Acta Biomater. 2016 Oct 1; 43:327-337. PMID: 27481290


Liang J, Cheng L, Struckhoff JJ, Ravi N: Investigating triazine-based modification of hyaluronan using statistical designs. Carbohydr. Polym. 2015 Nov 5; 132:472-80. PMID: 26256372

Santhanam S, Liang J, Baid R, Ravi N: Investigating thiol-modification on hyaluronan via carbodiimide chemistry using response surface methodology. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A. 2015 Jul; 103(7):2300-8. PMID: 25369214


Day TE, Ravi N, Xian H, Brugh A: Sensitivity of diabetic retinopathy associated vision loss to screening interval in an agent-based/discrete event simulation model. Comput. Biol. Med. 2014 Apr; 47:7-12. PMID: 24508563


Day TE, Ravi N, Xian H, Brugh A: An Agent-Based Modeling Template for a Cohort of Veterans with Diabetic Retinopathy. PLoS One. 2013 Jun 21; 8(6):e66812. PMID: 23805280

Andley UP, Malone JP, Hamilton PD, Ravi N, Townsend RR: Comparative proteomic analysis identifies age-dependent increases in the abundance of specific proteins after deletion of the small heat shock proteins αA- and αB-crystallin. Biochemistry. 2013 Apr 30; 52(17):2933-48.  PMID: 23590631


Du H, Hamilton P, Reilly M, Ravi N: Injectable in situ physically and chemically crosslinkable gellan hydrogel. Macromol. Biosci. 2012 Jul; 12(7):952-61. PMID: 22707249


Kleinberg TT, Tzekov RT, Stein L, Ravi N, Kaushal S: Vitreous substitutes: a comprehensive review. Surv. Ophthalmol. 2011 Jul-Aug; 56(4):300-23. PMID: 21601902

Andley UP, Hamilton PD, Ravi N, Weihl CC: A knock-in mouse model for the R120G mutation of αB-crystallin recapitulates human hereditary myopathy and cataracts. PLoS One. 2011 Mar 18; 6(3):e17671. PMID: 21445271


Day TE, Li WM, Ingolfsson A, Ravi N: The use of queueing and simulative analyses to improve an overwhelmed pharmacy call center. J. Pharm. Pract. 2010 Oct; 23(5):492-5. PMID: 21507852

Reilly MA, Ravi N: A geometric model of ocular accommodation. Vision Res. 2010 Feb 8; 50(3):330-6. PMID: 19963002


Hamilton PD, Jacobs DZ, Rapp B, Ravi N: Surface hydrophobic modification of fifth-generation hydroxyl-terminated poly(amidoamine) dendrimers and its effect on biocompatibility and rheology. Materials 2009, 2, 883-902. link

Du H, Hamilton PD, Reilly MA, d’Avignon A, Biswas P, Ravi N: A facile synthesis of highly water-soluble, core-shell organo-silica nanoparticles with controllable size via sol-gel process. J. Colloid. Interface Sci. 2009 Dec 15; 340(2):202-8. PMID: 19783256

Swindle-Reilly KE, Shah M, Hamilton PD, Eskin TA, Kaushal S, Ravi N: Rabbit study of an in situ forming hydrogel vitreous substitute. Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2009 Oct; 50(10):4840-6. PMID: 19324846

Reilly M, Ravi N: Microindentation of the young porcine ocular lens. J. Biomech. Eng. 2009 Apr; 131(4):044502. PMID: 19275444

Reilly MA, Perry G, Ravi N: A dynamic microindentation device with electrical contact detection. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 2009 Jan; 80(1):015105. PMID: 19191461

Reilly MA, Hamilton PD, Perry G, Ravi N: Comparison of the behavior of natural and refilled porcine lenses in a robotic lens stretcher. Exp. Eye Res. 2009 Mar; 88(3):483-94. PMID: 19041865


Andley UP, Hamilton PD, Ravi N: Mechanism of insolubilization by a single-point mutation in alphaA-crystallin linked with hereditary human cataracts. Biochemistry. 2008 Sep 9; 47(36):9697-706. PMID: 18700785

Reilly MA, Rapp B, Hamilton PD, Shen AQ, Ravi N: Material characterization of porcine lenticular soluble proteins. Biomacromolecules. 2008 Jun; 9(6):1519-26.  PMID: 18471013

Swindle KE, Hamilton PD, Ravi N: In situ formation of hydrogels as vitreous substitutes: Viscoelastic comparison to porcine vitreous. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A. 2008 Dec 1; 87(3):656-65.
PMID: 18189301

Reilly MA, Hamilton PD, Ravi N: Dynamic multi-arm radial lens stretcher: a robotic analog of the ciliary body. Exp. Eye Res. 2008 Jan; 86(1):157-64. PMID: 18068804


Swindle KE, Ravi N: Recent advances in polymeric vitreous substitutes. Expert Rev. Ophthalmol. 2007 2(2):255-265 link

Zhang D, Hamilton PD, Kao JL-F, Venkataraman S, Wooley KL, Ravi N: Formation of nanogel aggregates by an amphiphilic cholesteryl‐poly(amidoamine) dendrimer in aqueous media. J. Polym. Sci. Part A: Polymer Chemistry. 2007 45:2569-2575 link


Foster WJ, Aliyar HA, Hamilton PD, Ravi N: Internal Osmotic Pressure as a Mechanism of Retinal Attachment in a Vitreous Substitute. J. Bioact. Compat. Polym. 2006 21(3):221-235 link


Aliyar HA, Hamilton PD, Ravi N: Refilling of ocular lens capsule with copolymeric hydrogel containing reversible disulfide. Biomacromolecules. 2005 Jan-Feb; 6(1):204-11. PMID: 15638522

Aliyar HA, Hamilton PD, Remsen EE, Ravi N: Synthesis of Polyacrylamide Nanogels by Intramolecular Disulfide Cross-linking. J. Bioact. Compat. Polym. 2005 20(2):169-181 link

Ravi N, Aliyar HA, Hamilton PD: Hydrogel Nanocomposite as a Synthetic Intra-Ocular Lens Capable of Accommodation Macromol. Symp. 2005 227(1):191-202 link




Ravi N, Mitra A, Hamilton P, Horkay F: Characterization of the network properties of poly(ethylene glycol)–acrylate hydrogels prepared by variations in the ethanol–water solvent composition during crosslinking copolymerization. J. Polym. Sci. Part B: Polymer Physics. 2002 40:2677–2684 link


Shanmugananda Murthy K, Ravi N: Hydrogels as potential probes for investigating the mechanism of lenticular presbyopia. Curr. Eye Res. 2001 22(5):384-393 link






Chuck RS, Ravi, N: Development of an injectable intraocular lens for preservation of accommodation. Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1996 37(3):S770 link



Bukanov N, Ravi VN, Miller D, Srivastava K, Berg DE: Pseudomonas aeruginosa corneal ulcer isolates distinguished using the arbitrarily primed PCR DNA fingerprinting method.
Curr. Eye Res. 1994 Nov;13(11):783-90. PMID: 7851113

Mahato RI, Thies C, Lubiniewski A, Ravi VN: Polymer mixture nanoparticles for
ocular drug delivery. Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1994 35: 2218


Book Chapters

  1. Reilly MA, Swindle-Reilly KE, Ravi N. In Situ-Forming Ophthalmic Prostheses. In: Novel biomedical hydrogels: biochemistry, manufacture, and medical applications. S. Rimmer, Editor. Woodhead Publishing Ltd.: 118-148, 2011.
  2. Swindle-Reilly KE, Ravi N. Designing hydrogels as vitreous substitutes in ophthalmic surgery. In: Biomaterials and Regenerative Medicine in Ophthalmology. Traian Chirila, Editor. CRC Press, Woodhead Publishing Ltd.: 339-373, 2010.
  3. Ravi N and Aliyar HA. Tissue reaction to prosthetic materials. Chapter in Primary care in surgery: Health promotion and disease prevention in patients with implanted prosthetic devices. Editors F. E. Johnson, J.G. Goldstone, K.S. Virgo. Publisher Humana (2006).
  4. Ravi N, Mitra A, Zhang L, Szabo B. The effect of hydrophobicity on the viscoelastic creep characteristics of poly(ethylene glycol)-acrylate hydrogels. In: Polymer gels: Fundamental and applications; Bohidar HB, Dublin P, Osada Y., ed., ACS Symposium Series 833, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 2002, p233.
  5. Ward TC, Wnuk A, Shcori E, Viswanathan R, and McGrath JE. Poly (Arlene Ether-Sulfone) – Poly (Aryl Carbonate) Block Copolymers. In: Advances in Chemistry, S276: 293, 1979.


  1. Ravi N. Reversible hydrogel systems and methods thereof. US Patent number: US 8192485 B2. June 5, 2012. Assignee Department of Veterans Affairs and Washington University in St. Louis, St.Louis, MO.
  2. Ravi N. Hydrogel nanocomposites for ophthalmic applications. Patent number: US 8153156 B2. April 10, 2012. Assignee Department of Veterans Affairs and Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO.
  3. Ravi N. Hydrogel nanocomposite for intraocular lens applications. US patent number: US 20110144228 A1. Jun 16, 2011, Assignee Department of Veterans Affairs, St.Louis, MO.
  4. Ravi N. Managing glycemic status in diabetic patients. Patent number: 7670794. March 2, 2010. Assignee Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO.
  5. DePrince RB, Viswanathan R. Layered Compression Molded Device for the Sustained Release of a Beneficial Agent. The United States Number 4,898,733. Feb 6, 1990. Assignee International Minerals and Chemical corporation. Terre Haute, IN
  6. Shalati MD, Viswanathan R. Sustained Release Implant and Method for Preparing. The United States Patent Number 4,761,289. August 1988, Assignee International Minerals and Chemical corporation. Terre Haute, IN