The BAI group students are underlined.
All data and codes are available upon reasonable requests to Dr. Bai.
Check Google Scholar for the citation report.


  1. Intrinsic Electrochemical Limits Preceding Dendrite Penetration in Ceramic Electrolytes
    Rajeev Gopal and Peng Bai*
    Submitted (2024)
  2. Stabilization versus Penetration Dynamics Induced by Localized Concentration Polarization in Solid Polymer Electrolytes
    Youngju Lee and Peng Bai*
    Journal of the Electrochemical Society, accepted in press (2024) [ Open Access ]


  1. Reversible Switch in Charge Storage Enabled by Selective Ion Transport in Solid Electrolyte Interphase
    Lei Tao, Joshua A Russell, Dawei Xia, Bingyuan Ma, Sooyeon Hwang, Zhijie Yang, Anyang Hu, Yuxin Zhang, Poom Sittisomwong, Deyang Yu, Paul A Deck, Louis A Madsen, Haibo Huang, Hui Xiong*, Peng Bai*, Kang Xu*, Feng Lin*
    Journal of the American Chemical Society, 145: 16538 (2023) [ Link ]
  2. The Faceted Lithium Growths
    Peng Bai*
    Joule, 7: 2201 (2023) [ Link ]
  3. A Bipolar Separator for Autonomous Suppression of Dendrite Penetration in Zinc Metal Batteries
    Youngju Lee and Peng Bai*
    Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 170: 060511 (2023) [ Open Access ]
  4. Transient Polarization and Dendrite Initiation Dynamics in Ceramic Electrolytes
    Rajeev GopalLongan WuYoungju LeeJinzhao Guo, Peng Bai*
    ACS Energy Letters, 8: 2141 (2023) [ Link | arXiv preprint | News Story by WashU]
  5. Tailoring solid-electrolyte interphase and solvation structure for subzero temperature, fast-charging, and long-cycle-life sodium-ion batteries
    Lei Tao, Poom Sittisomwong, Bingyuan Ma, Anyang Hu, Dawei Xia, Sooyeon Hwang, Haibo Huang, Peng Bai, Feng Lin*
    Energy Storage Materials, 55: 826 (2023) [ Link ]


  1. Operando Microscopy Diagnosis of the Onset of Lithium Plating in Transparent Lithium-Ion Full Cells
    Bingyuan Ma, Shubham Agrawal, Rajeev Gopal, Peng Bai*
    ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 14: 54708 (2022) [ Link ]
  2. Electron transfer kinetics at anode interface in microbial electrochemical systems
    Fubin Liu (rotation student), Bingyuan Ma, Zhen He*, Peng Bai*
    Electrochimica Acta, 432: 141188 (2022) [ Link ]
  3. Temperature-insensitive Fast Anion Intercalation Kinetics in Graphite Electrodes for Aluminum-ion Batteries
    Shubham AgrawalNick MatteucciBingyuan MaJiayi WuRochit Sinha, Peng Bai*
    Electrochimica Acta, 428: 140892 (2022) [ Link ]
  4. Effects of Interfacial Solvation Structures on the Morphological Stability of Potassium Metal Anodes Revealed by Operando Diagnosis
    Bingyuan MaPoom SittisomwongJiayuan Ma, Peng Bai*
    ACS Applied Energy Materials, 5: 7124 (2022) [ Link ]
  5. Overlimiting Ion Transport Dynamic toward Sand’s Time in Solid Polymer Electrolytes
    Youngju LeeBingyuan Ma, Peng Bai*
    Materials Today Energy, 27: 101037 (2022) [ Link ]
  6. Dynamic Interplay between Phase Transformation Instabilities and Spatiotemporal Reaction Heterogeneities in Particulate Intercalation Electrodes
    Shubham Agrawal, Peng Bai*
    Cell Reports Physical Science, 3: 100854 (2022) [ Open Access ]
  7. Anode-free Batteries Offer Sustainable Alternative (Invited Voice)
    Peng Bai*
    One Earth, 5:204 (2022) [ PDF ]
  8. Cobalt-Free Cathode Materials: Families and their Prospects
    Hong Zhao, Wai-Yu Ashley Lam, Li Sheng, Li Wang*, Peng Bai*, Yang Yang,
    Dongsheng Ren, Hong Xu*, Xiangming He*

    Advanced Energy Materials, 2103894 (2022) [ Link ]
  9. Fast charging limits of ideally stable metal anodes in liquid electrolytes
    Bingyuan Ma, Peng Bai*
    Advanced Energy Materials, 12: 2102967 (2022) [ Link | News Story by WashU ]
  10. Impacts of negative to positive capacities ratios on the performance of next-generation lithium-ion batteries
    Ge MuShubham AgrawalPoom Sittisomwong, Peng Bai*
    Electrochimica Acta, 406: 139878 (2022) [ Link ]
  11. Gradient lithiation to load controllable, high utilization lithium in graphitic carbon host for high-energy batteries
    Lei Tao, Bingyuan Ma, Fenqiang Luo, Zhengrui Xu, Zhifeng Zheng, Haibo Huang, Peng Bai, Feng Lin*
    Nano Energy, 93: 106808 (2022) [ Link]


  1. Interphases for Alkali Metal Anodes (Invited Book Chapter)
    Peng Bai*
    Encyclopedia of Energy Storage(2021) [ Link ]
  2. Dynamic Interfacial stability confirmed by Microscopic Optical Operando Experiments Enables High-Retention-Rate Anode-free Na Metal Full Cells
    Bingyuan MaYoungju Lee, Peng Bai*
    Advanced Science, 8: 2005006 (2021) [ Open Access | News Story by WashU ]
  3. Operando Electrochemical Kinetics in Particulate Porous Electrodes by Quantifying the Mesoscale Spatiotemporal Heterogeneities
    Shubham Agrawal, Peng Bai*
    Advanced Energy Materials, 11: 2003344 (2021)[ Link | arXiv | News Story by WashU ]
  4. Theory of Coupled Ion-Electron Transfer Kinetics
    Dimitrios Fraggedakis, Michael McEldrew, Raymond B. Smith, Yamini Krishnan, Yirui Zhang, Peng Bai, William C. Chueh, Yang Shao-Horn, Martin Z. Bazant*
    Electrochimica Acta, 367: 137432 (2021) [ Link | arXiv ]


  1. Concentration Polarization and Metal Dendrite Initiation in Isolated Electrolyte Microchannels
    Youngju LeeBingyuan Ma, Peng Bai*
    Energy & Environmental Science, 13: 3504-3513 (2020) [ Link | arXiv | Featured as one of the 2020 EES HOT Articles | News Story by WashU ]


  1. Active Control of Viscous Fingering Using Electric Fields
    Tao Gao, Mohammad Mirzadeh, Peng Bai, Kameron Conforti, Martin Z. Bazant*
    Nature Communications, 10: 4002 (2019) [ Open Access ]
  2. Nano‐sized Titanium Nitride Functionalized Separator Improves Cycling Performance of Lithium Sulfur Batteries
    Guiyin Xu, Qing‐bo Yan, Peng Bai, Hui Dou, Ping Nie, Xiaogang Zhang*
    ChemistrySelect, 4: 698-704 (2019) [ Link | PDF ]


  1. Interactions between lithium growths and nanoporous ceramic separators
    Peng Bai*, Jinzhao Guo, Miao Wang, Akihiro Kushima, Liang Su, Ju Li, Fikile R. Brushett, Martin Z. Bazant*
    Joule, 2: 1-16 (2018) [ Link | PDF ]
  2. Interplay of phase boundary anisotropy and electro-autocatalytic surface reactions on the lithium intercalation dynamics in LiXFePO4 platelet-like nanoparticles
    Neel Nadkarni, Elisha Rejovitzky, Dimitrios Fraggedakis, Claudio V. Di Leo, Raymond B. Smith, Peng Bai, Martin Z. Bazant*
    Physical Review Materials, 2: 085406 (2018) [ Link | PDF ]


  1. Thin multifunctional coating on separator improves cyclability and safety of lithium sulfur battery
    Guiyin Xu, Qing-bo Yan, Shitong Wang, Akihiro Kushima, Peng Bai, Kai Liu, Xiaogang Zhang, Zilong Tang, Ju Li*
    Chemical Science, 8: 6619-6625 (2017) [ Link | PDF ]

*** Prior to joining WashU ***

  1. Min-Joon Lee, Eunsol Lho, Peng Bai, Sujong Chae, Ju Li* and Jaephil Cho*. Low-temperature carbon coating of nanosized Li1.015Al0.06Mn1.925O4 and high-density electrode for high-power Li-ion batteries. Nano Letters, 17: 3744-3751 (2017) [ Link | PDF ]
  2. Kai Liu, Peng Bai, Martin Z. Bazant, Chang-An Wang and Ju Li*. A soft non-porous separator and its effectiveness in stabilizing Li metal anodes cycling at 10 mA cm-2 observed in situ in a capillary cell. Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 5: 4300-4307 (2017) [ Link | PDF ]


  1. Akihiro Kushima, Kang Pyo So, Cong Su, Peng Bai, Nariaki Kuriyama, Takanori Maebashi, Yoshiya Fujiwara, Martin Z. Bazant* and Ju Li*. Liquid cell Transmission Electron Microscopy observation of lithium metal growth/dissolution: root growth, dead lithium and lithium flotsams. Nano Energy, 32: 271-279 (2016) [ Link | PDF ]
  2. Peng Bai*, Ju Li, Fikile Brushett and Martin Z. Bazant*. Transition of lithium growth mechanisms in liquid electrolytesEnergy & Environmental Science, 9: 3221-3229 (2016) [ Link | PDF | MIT News | Green Car Congress ]
  3. Jongwoo Lim, Yiyang Li, Daan Alsem, Hongyun So, Sang Chul Lee, Peng Bai, Daniel Cogswell, Xuzhao Liu, Norman Jin, Youngsang Yu, Norman Salmon, David Shapiro, Martin Z. Bazant, Tolek Tyliszczak, William Chueh*. Origin and hysteresis of lithium compositional spatiodynamics within battery primary particlesScience, 353: 566-571 (2016) [ Link | Perspective | PDF ]
  4. Peng Bai* and Martin Z. Bazant. A lithium-bromine rechargeable fuel cell with high specific energy. Electrochimica Acta, 202: 216-223 (2016) [ Link | PDF ]
  5. Jihyung Han, Miao Wang, Peng Bai, Fikile Brushett and Martin Z. Bazant*. Dendrite suppression by shock electrodeposition in charged porous mediaScientific Reports, 6: 28054 (2016) [ Link | PDF ]


  1. Peng Bai, Venkat Viswanathan and Martin Z. Bazant*. A dual-mode rechargeable lithium-bromine/oxygen fuel cell. Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 3: 14165-14172 (2015) [ Link | PDF ]
  2. Yi Zeng, Peng Bai, Raymond Smith and Martin Z. Bazant*. Simple formula for Asymmetric Marcus-Hush kinetics. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, 748: 52-57 (2015) [ Link | PDF ]


  1. Yi Zeng, Raymond Smith, Peng Bai and Martin Z. Bazant*. Simple formula for Marcus-Hush-Chidsey kinetics. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, 735: 77-83 (2014) [ Link | PDF ]
  2. Ji-Hyung Han, Edwin Khoo, Peng Bai and Martin Z. Bazant*. Over-limiting current and control of dendritic growth by surface conduction in nanopores. Scientific Reports, 4: 7056 (2014) [ Link | PDF ]
  3. Peng Bai and Martin Z. Bazant*. Charge transfer kinetics at the solid-solid interface of porous electrodes. Nature Communications, 5:3585 (2014) [ Link | PDF ]


  1. Peng Bai* and Guangyu Tian. Statistical kinetics of phase-transforming nanoparticles in LiFePO4 porous electrodesElectrochimica Acta, 89: 644-651 (2013) [ Link | PDF ]


  1. Peng Bai, Daniel A. Cogswell and Martin Z. Bazant*. Suppression of phase separation in LiFePO4 nanoparticles during battery dischargeNano Letters, 11(11): 4890-4896 (2011) [ Link | PDF ]